Eyal Meyer - Oropos and the Amphiareion

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Contents

Usuful links

Google Earth - topographical map

Important Issues

The establishment of the oracle at the Amphiarieon

  • Between 431-415 (Petrakos 1968, 22)
  • Between 420-414 (Petropoulou 1981, 57-8)
    • In 414 BC the play Amphiareios, written by Arisophanes, was staged. (terminus ante quem)
    • No contruction works outside of Attica between 431-422 BC, except the temple of Apollo at Delos.
      • If the Athenians tried to induce Apollo to avert the recurrence of the plague, then the cults of Asclepius and Amphiareios had not yet settled in Attica.
    • in 420 BC the cult of Asclepius was introduced to Attica, so it is plausible that his peer in healing cult Anphiaraios was introduced to Oropos as the same time. (terminus post quem)

The Eretrian Connection

Scholarship

Knoepfler 1986

Bonner 1941

Walker 2004

Ancient Sources

Oropos as an Eretrian Colony

  • Strabo 9.2.6
    • The secraed harbor of Oropos which is called Delphinion
    • In the oposite in Old Eretria, 60 stadia seperating the two port.
    • 20 stadia for the Delphinion is Oropos at oposite to it in the present Eretria. the passage across the strait if 40 stadia
  • Strabo 9.2.10
    • Narkissos, son of Eretrieus, eponym of Eretria, had a tomb near Oropos.
  • Nikokrates (180-110 BC)
    • Oropos as an Eretrian Colony. (See: Bonner 1941)
  • Stephanus of Byzantium (6th AD)
    • implies that Oropos was once an Eretrian territory

Eretrian Attepts to seize Oropos

  • before 520 BC: Pausanias 9.22.1
  • 411 BC: Rhucydides 7.28.1; 8.60.1-2
  • 404 BC: the Thebans take over Oropos: Diogenes Laertius 14.17.3

Agricultural Key Terms

  • fallow = אדמת בור
  • barley = שעורה
  • Legume/pulses = קטניות
  • fodder = מספוא, חציר
  • transhumans = נדידה עונתית של רועים ועדריהם לשדות מרעה אחרים

Different periodiztion systems

Mainstream:

  • Bronze Age c. 2000-1200
  • Dark Ages 1100-800
  • Archaic Age 800-500
  • Classical Age 500-323
  • Hellenistic Era 323-27 BC

Sub Division:

  • Fianl Neolithic - 4500-3200 BC
  • Early [Helladic] Bronze Age - 3200-2000 BC
    • EH I - 320-2650 BC
    • EH II - 2650-2200/2150 BC
    • EH III - 2200/2150-2050/2000 BC
  • Middle [Helladic] Bronze Age 2000-1550 BC
  • Late [Helladic] Bronze Age Mycenaean period 1550-1050 BC
    • Late [Helladic] Bronze age 1550-1060 BC
    • Geometric 1060-800 BC
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